April 29, 2012

Investigator: Sickened Maine horses difficult to treat

The state veterinarian studying the deaths of 23 animals at a Gorham farm says botulism can kill quickly.

By Beth Quimby bquimby@pressherald.com
Staff Writer

Maine's state veterinarian has been working to find the source of a rare botulism outbreak that is believed to have killed 23 horses at the Whistlin' Willows Farm in Gorham in the past month.

click image to enlarge

Almost two dozen horses died in an outbreak of botulism this month at Whistlin’ Willows Farm on Nonesuch Road in Gorham. Dr. Donald Hoenig, the state veterinarian, says there are no signs that the animals were cared for improperly.

Photos by John Patriquin/Staff Photographer

click image to enlarge

Horses graze at Whistlin’ Willows Farm on Saturday. Some of the farm’s horses recovered from the outbreak’s effects, while another 40 to 45 animals never became sick, officials said.

Additional Photos Below

Part of the problem during an outbreak, says Dr. Donald Hoenig, is that once a horse exhibits signs of botulism poisoning, there is little veterinarians can do to treat the animal.

Owners of the 175-acre farm -- William and Anne Kozloff, according to the Whistlin' Willows website -- did not respond Saturday to telephone calls or emails.

State inspectors believe the powerful and fast-acting neurotoxin responsible for the outbreak developed in bales of silage, which is packaged in white plastic while the grass is still moist, unlike hay, which is dried.

Hoenig said a horse can die from botulism within hours of ingestion. Flushing the animal with fluids is the standard treatment, but that is often difficult because the horse's facial muscles are typically paralyzed and it is impossible for it to swallow.

"It is just an awful situation," said Hoenig.

He said that antitoxins are available, but they are not a great solution since the veterinarian has to know which one of eight different strains of botulism caused the poisoning. The antidote can cost $500 to $1,000 per dose.

Hoenig said because botulism is so rare, Maine horse owners do not commonly vaccinate their animals against it. Hoenig does not recommend feeding silage to unvaccinated horses.

Hoenig said he hopes to send samples of the silage to Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., this week to confirm the presence of botulism. He said he would then decide what steps to take to prevent more poisonings. The person who provided the silage to Whistlin' Willows Farm, whom Hoenig declined to identify, is working with state officials to help identify the source.

Hoenig warned horse owners against feeding moldy hay to their animals.

Some local horse owners said that while the poisonings were tragic, they were not worried about the welfare of their own animals.

Jo Hight, president of the Maine Horse Association, said silage is difficult for horses to digest and generally horse owners avoid it.

"There is no panic that this would spread," she said.

The poisonings started April 7 and continued through April 17. Several horses recovered from the effects, probably because they ingested smaller amounts of the bacteria, said Hoenig. Another 40 to 45 horses at the farm were not sickened. Hoenig said there were no signs that the animals were cared for improperly.

There have been no other cases of suspected botulism poisonings in horses in Maine.

State officials are working with the Gorham farm owners to keep the carcasses of the animals, buried 8 feet deep on the farm, from contaminating the water table. Hoenig said the concern is not about the spread of botulism, which research shows does not spread through water, but about other contaminants.

Staff Writer Beth Quimby can be contacted at 791-6363 or at:



Were you interviewed for this story? If so, please fill out our accuracy form

Send question/comment to the editors

Additional Photos

click image to enlarge

According to the business’ website, Whistlin’ Willows Farm in Gorham is owned by William and Anne Kozloff.


Further Discussion

Here at KJonline.com we value our readers and are committed to growing our community by encouraging you to add to the discussion. To ensure conscientious dialogue we have implemented a strict no-bullying policy. To participate, you must follow our Terms of Use.

Questions about the article? Add them below and we’ll try to answer them or do a follow-up post as soon as we can. Technical problems? Email them to us with an exact description of the problem. Make sure to include:
  • Type of computer or mobile device your are using
  • Exact operating system and browser you are viewing the site on (TIP: You can easily determine your operating system here.)